I'm Michael Yip

With 20+ years in the video and photography industry, I've been engaged to cover quite a number of historical events that happened across the Asian region in the recent years. From the 1st Formula 1 race in Malaysia to the SEA Games in Laos and Olympics in Australia. Since 2010, based out of Kuala Lumpur, my team and I have been engaged to cover a number of corporate clients and notable individuals as well as festivals in the Asian region. To get in touch with us to use our service, Just head over to the contact section and drop me a message.

Through ABOOD PLT., my team and I also provides Event Production as well as Procurement services. Our core team has a combined 30+ years of experience in the event industry organizing festivals and corporate functions as well as corporate training services. We also have a team that has a strong network in the business world that enabled us to provide procurement services to various businesses looking for specific items or services. To reach out to us, you can drop me a message via the floating button at the bottom right or write in to us at info@mikeyip.com or aboodmediamy@gmail.com

If you are stumped by the photo, yes, I dance as well, mainly Salsa, Bachata, Kizomba, West Coast Swing and Argentine Tango. I have since stopped performing due to injuries but if you are looking for performers for corporate events/functions/parties/festivals. Do drop me a message as well as I manages some of the dance teams that is currently making the rounds performing for various clients.

Kolej Bandar Utama/Central St. Martin

Diploma in Arts and Design

Kolej Damansara Utama

Diploma in Telecommunication Engineering

SMK Damansara Utama


Photographer/Video Producer


Abood PLT

Procurement Services and Event Management

Digital Marketing Solutions

Abood Media Sdn Bhd

My Skills
Photography and Video Production
Brand Management and Solutions
Public Relations
Digital Marketing Solutions


Confirmed Bookings for 2018


Confirmed Destinations for 2018


Confirmed Dance Festivals for 2018


Talks Confirmed for 2018


Photography and Video Production

As our core business, this is what we are good at, capturing visuals that brings out the best for your brand.

Procurement Services and Event Management

Through Abood PLT, we specializes in helping brands in 2 big ways, providing a customized procurement solutions for their business needs. We also tailor make events for organizations from corporate training to roadshows and tournaments.

Social Media Marketing

Abood Media Sdn Bhd's core strenght in Digital Marketing Services focuses on Social Media Management and promotions.

Web Design

We also design and revamp websites as part of Abood Media Sdn Bhd's services.

Live Event Streaming Production

As part of a new offering from MIKE YIP STUDIO and partners, we also provides Live Streaming services for Events through dedicated sites or onto social media platforms.


We pride ourselves at being good and efficient in what we do and we always try our best to deliver services that exceeds our client's expectations.

I also blogs

Japan and Singapore top 2019 list of world's most powerful passports

It's been a two-horse race this year to be named the world's most powerful passport, with both top contenders in Asia.

Now, as we enter the final quarter of 2019, Japan and Singapore have held onto their position as the world's most travel-friendly passports.

That's the view of the Henley Passport Index, which periodically measures the access each country's travel document affords.

Singapore and Japan's passports have topped the rankings thanks to both documents offering access to 190 countries each.

South Korea rubs shoulders with Finland and Germany in second place, with citizens of all three countries able to access 188 jurisdictions around the world without a prior visa.

Finland has benefited from recent changes to Pakistan's formerly highly restrictive visa policy. Pakistan now offers an ETA (Electronic Travel Authority) to citizens of 50 countries, including Finland, Japan, Spain, Malta, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates -- but not, notably, the United States or the UK.

The European countries of Denmark, Italy and Luxembourg hold third place in the index, with visa-free/visa-on-arrival access to 187 countries, while France, Spain and Sweden are in the fourth slot, with a score of 186.

Five years ago, the United States and the UK topped the rankings in 2014 -- but both countries have now slipped down to sixth place, the lowest position either has held since 2010.

While the Brexit process has yet to directly impact on the UK's ranking, the Henley Passport Index press release observed in July, "with its exit from the EU now imminent, and coupled with ongoing confusion about the terms of its departure, the UK's once-strong position looks increasingly uncertain."

The United Arab Emirates continues its ascent up the rankings, up five places to rank 15th.

"It's the strongest climber this quarter," Lorraine Charles at Cambridge University's Centre for Business Research says in the October release.

At the other end of the scale, Afghanistan is once again at the bottom of the rankings, with its citizens needing a prior visa for all but 25 destinations worldwide.

Dr. Christian H. Kaelin, Chairman of Henley & Partners and the creator of the passport index concept, says in the July release: "With a few notable exceptions, the latest rankings from the Henley Passport Index show that countries around the world increasingly view visa-openness as crucial to economic and social progress."

The best passports to hold in 2019 are:

1. Japan, Singapore (190 destinations)
2. Finland, Germany, South Korea (188)
3. Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg (187)
4. France, Spain, Sweden (186)
5. Austria, Netherlands, Portugal (185)
6. Belgium, Canada, Greece, Ireland, Norway, United Kingdom, United States, Switzerland (184)
7. Malta, Czech Republic (183)
8. New Zealand (182)
9. Australia, Lithuania, Slovakia (181)
10. Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Slovenia (180)

The worst passports to hold
Several countries around the world have visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to fewer than 40 countries. These include:

100. Lebanon, North Korea (39 destinations)
101. Nepal (38)
102. Libya, Palestinian Territory, Sudan (37)
103. Yemen (33)
104. Somalia, Pakistan (31)
105. Syria (29)
106. Iraq (27)
107. Afghanistan (25)

The Henley Passport Index is based on data provided by the International Air Transport Authority (IATA) and covers 199 passports and 227 travel destinations. It is updated in real time throughout the year, as and when visa policy changes come into effect.

List of Dance Festivals around the Asia-Pacific for 2020

If you're looking around for a festival (especially salsa/bachata/afro-latin), you can check out this comprehensive list here.

Highlights of Getaway to Phuket | 2019

It's been awhile since we last went on a holiday and after a crazy few months, felt that it is high time we just pack our bags and go. And that's what we did, taking 4 days off to get away from the rat race, putting all work related matters in Malaysia and skip off to Phuket. Only thing in our mind? To relax, to spend more time with each other and to find ourselves again. Here's the highlight of what happened.

Why is IPCMC Bill important

The Pakatan Harapan government tabled a Bill to set up an independent external oversight body of the police force, an initiative that has long been demanded by civil society to deal with allegations of police misconduct including custodial deaths.
The Bill is quite a comprehensive draft of the proposed law, with 38 pages covering 60 main provisions and explanatory notes to cover any possible issues that one might be able to think of.
Below is Malay Mail’s quick guide to the Independent Police Complaints of Misconduct Commission (IPCMC) Bill:
1. What is it called?
The IPCMC Bill will be called the Independent Police Complaints of Misconduct Commission Act 2019, or the IPCMC Act if it is passed as law.
2. What will it do?
The Bill is to set up the IPCMC and state its functions and powers, as well as what kind of complaints regarding the police would be handled and how these complaints would be investigated, and disciplinary proceedings to deal with misconduct and the punishments that can be meted out on errant police personnel.
The Bill lists five functions that the IPCMC will have, namely to promote integrity within the police force as well as to advise the government and recommend measures for such promotion of integrity; to protect public interest by dealing with police misconduct; to formulate and put in place mechanisms for the detection, investigation and prevention of police misconduct; and to “exercise disciplinary control” over the police.
The IPCMC’s powers include advising the government on the enhancement of the police’s welfare and well-being, and to audit and monitor police facilities, operations and procedures.
3. But who will scrutinise the police?
The IPCMC is to have 10 appointed members at maximum — including a chairman and deputy chairman, but with the condition that none of them is a current or former police personnel or a public servant.
The IPCMC members’ appointments by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the prime minister is for a maximum three-year term, and they can only hold the position for a maximum two terms in a row. The paid position is revocable by the Agong.
Being an IPCMC commissioner is a serious job which will be lost if one becomes bankrupt, becomes a federal or state lawmaker (MP or ADUN), or is convicted of an offence involving corruption, fraud, dishonesty or punishable with imprisonment or a RM2,000 fine, or is absent from three IPCMC meetings in a row without permission, or is of unsound mind or incapable of discharging one’s duties. 
4. More than the IPCMC ten
Besides having up to 10 members, the IPCMC will also have appointed officers to carry out the work, including officers seconded from other government agencies to be investigators, or lawyers in private practice or those from the Judicial and Legal Service.
If you are being acted against or have been asked for information from someone claiming to be from IPCMC, you can ask them to produce their authority card — a card which will be signed by the IPCMC chairman and issued to IPCMC’s members and officers.
The IPCMC can also request to use the services of any staff or facilities of a government department or local authority or statutory authority, and also for help from any government officer or member of the police.
The IPCMC can also work together with and share information that shall be kept confidential to other enforcement agencies or state or federal government departments, while the police force also has the responsibility to co-operate and assist the IPCMC such as by providing information within their control or ability to obtain.
Although IPCMC commissioners cannot be former police officers, they can engage the services of retired or former police officers and others to be consultants. (The consultants can be part of task forces set up by the IPCMC to investigate cases of grievous hurt or death in police custody.)
5. What can the public complain about?
Under Section 22 of the proposed law, the public can write in to the IPCMC’s Complaints Committee about alleged misconduct by the police, including actions or inaction that are:
  • against the law
  • unreasonable, unjust, oppressive or improperly discriminatory
  • done on improper motives, irrelevant reasons or consideration
  • failure to provide reasons when it should have been given
  • failure to comply with rules and standard operating procedures
  • crime committed by a police personnel
But the action complained of does not include those already regulated under the Police Act’s Sections 96 and 97, including police regulations made by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong covering matters such as promotions, demotions, leave of absence, and administrative orders made by the Inspector-General of Police (IGP) via standing orders.
The IPCMC can on its own initiative start an investigation, if it is satisfied that the matter is of significant public interest or that it would be in the public interest to probe whether or not a complaint was made.
The police is required to refer to the IPCMC any incident which resulted in “grievous hurt” or the death of any person detained or kept under police custody. 
The IPCMC has the power to visit police stations, lock-ups and detention centres and to make the necessary recommendations.
6. Filtering of complaints
The IPCMC’s Complaints Committee will go through the complaints and decide on four categories that will determine where the complaint will be forwarded to for further action, or if the complaint should be rejected.
Complaints on alleged police misconduct under Section 22 will be referred to the IPCMC for investigation; complaints on alleged corruption offences covered under the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) Act will be referred to the MACC; while complaints on alleged criminal offences under any other laws will be referred to the relevant authority.
To make sure your complaints are not recommended by the Complaints Committee to the IPCMC for rejection, the complaint should not:
  • be on trivial matters or not made in good faith
  • be about a misconduct that happened at “too remote a time” (too long ago) for an investigation to be justified
  • have an alternative and satisfactory means of redress
  • have been part of a final decision by the court or still part of pending court cases including appeals
  • be repetitious and contain no fresh allegation that would significantly affect the content of the complaint
7. IPCMC’s powers to investigate the complaint
Once your complaint on alleged police misconduct has been referred to the IPCMC for investigation, what can it do?
The IPCMC actually has extensive powers to make sure co-operation is provided (by showing up or providing documents or a sworn statement with information) for its investigation into the complaint, as the proposed law will punish those who fail to co-operate with a maximum RM10,000 fine or two years’ jail or both.
8. What happens to the investigation results?
The IPCMC officer who conducted the investigations will pass the findings to the Complaints Committee.
The Complaints Committee will then have four options, including: refer the findings to MACC if corruption offences under the MACC Act are found; refer to other relevant authority if criminal offences under any other law are found; or refer to the IPCMC if findings show any misconduct in order to start disciplinary proceedings.
But if the finding does not show any misconduct, the Complaints Committee will record the findings.
The IPCMC will inform the person who made the complaint what action has been taken.
9. Disciplinary action
The IPCMC will set up a Disciplinary Board to deal with misconduct complaints against members of the police force.
The Disciplinary Board will be a five-man panel chaired by an IPCMC member, with the rest being two IPCMC members, the IGP or a police representative with higher rank than the accused, and a Police Service Commission representative who is not from the police force.
If the misconduct complaints are against the IGP, the Chief Secretary to the Government will form a Special Disciplinary Board to preside over the disciplinary proceedings.
The IPCMC will have the authority to impose disciplinary action on any member of the police force for misconduct found, including:
  • warning
  • fine
  • forfeiture of emoluments
  • deferring salary movements
  • reduction of salary or reduction in rank
  • dismissal 
The IPCMC can also impose a surcharge on any police personnel that will be recorded in their record of service. (Under the Financial Procedure Act 1957, a surcharge is imposed on a government employee for financial-related failures such as improper payment of public money, failure to collect money owed to the government, destruction of government property).
10. Witness protection and other safeguards
With such a range of penalties on errant police officers possible, the IPCMC Bill outlines the protection for potential and existing witnesses, including by making it a crime for anyone who tries to block or uses threats to discourage a person from testifying before the IPCMC.
It will also be a crime to threaten, insult or injure anyone because they gave evidence before the IPCMC.
Both offences are punishable with a maximum two-year jail term or maximum RM10,000 fine or both.
If it appears that a witness or person helping IPCMC may be the target of intimidation, harassment or have their safety at risk, the IPCMC can make the necessary arrangements to protect them from such threats.
The IPCMC can direct the IGP or a public body to provide the protection or personnel or facilities to help in providing such protection, while anyone who contravenes the IPCMC’s orders to protect can be punished with a maximum RM10,000 fine or maximum two-year jail term or both.
Similar to contempt of court, anyone who disrespects, insults or threatens an IPCMC member commits contempt that is punishable by a maximum RM10,000 fine or maximum two-year jail term or both.
The IPCMC’s officials cannot be sued in court if they had acted in good faith, and evidence before the IPCMC will not be admissible in civil or criminal proceedings against those who complied with the IPCMC in good faith by giving evidence — including the giving of a sworn statement or document.
To ensure confidentiality, the proposed law will punish any IPCMC official or consultant or anyone disclosing information relating to IPCMC affairs unless authorised by the IPCMC or required for any civil or criminal proceedings. The penalty is a maximum RM10,000 fine or maximum two-year jail term or both.
The attorney general’s consent as the public prosecutor is required for any prosecution to be initiated in court for any of the offences listed in the IPCMC Bill.
11. If you have conflict of interest, say it and stay out
The IPCMC Bill has strict provisions that appear aimed at fiercely guarding the IPCMC’s independence. 
Other than not being allowed to have ever been in the police force, an IPCMC member must declare if they have an interest in any case under discussion by the IPCMC — whether it is a direct or indirect interest because of their family member or associate — and to then recuse themselves from being part of any discussion or decision-making on the misconduct case.
Any IPCMC officer or consultant with similar interest or connection to any police officer being probed for misconduct must also declare it, and not be involved in the IPCMC investigation for that case.
Parliament is to allocate adequate funds each year for the IPCMC. 
The IPCMC will also table an annual report to Parliament listing its activities and the action it has taken on matters referred to it, with the report to be submitted at Parliament’s second meeting at the latest.
12. What will happen to the EAIC
This law will dissolve the Enforcement Agency Integrity Commission (EAIC) by repealing the 2009 law that established it.
Under the proposed IPCMC Act, EAIC officers will become IPCMC officers, while any pending complaint, investigation, finding or hearing regarding the police that the EAIC was handling will be handled by the IPCMC and completed within six months of the new law coming into effect.
All complaints, investigations, findings and hearings related to enforcement agencies other than the police — which the EAIC also handled — will be referred to the respective enforcement agency’s Disciplinary Authority.
The proposed IPCMC Act also states that all pending disciplinary proceedings on misconduct before the police’s Disciplinary Authority — prior to this Act becoming law — will continue.
13. Ok, when will this IPCMC Bill become law?
Minister Datuk Liew Vui Keong tabled this Bill at the Dewan Rakyat for first reading on July 18, with the Bill expected to be debated and voted on in the next parliamentary meeting in October.
It will only become law if it is passed by both the Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara, and granted royal assent by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and will only come into effect on a date to be fixed by the prime minister that will be announced via a government gazette.

Laziness Does Not Exist

Laziness Does Not Exist
by Devon Price

An interesting article by Devon Price appeared on my social feed and just thought I'd share a bit on what it's all about.

I’ve been a psychology professor since 2012. In the past six years, I’ve witnessed students of all ages procrastinate on papers, skip presentation days, miss assignments, and let due dates fly by. I’ve seen promising prospective grad students fail to get applications in on time; I’ve watched PhD candidates take months or years revising a single dissertation draft; I once had a student who enrolled in the same class of mine two semesters in a row, and never turned in anything either time.

I don’t think laziness was ever at fault.


In fact, I don’t believe that laziness exists.

I’m a social psychologist, so I’m interested primarily in the situational and contextual factors that drive human behavior. When you’re seeking to predict or explain a person’s actions, looking at the social norms, and the person’s context, is usually a pretty safe bet. Situational constraints typically predict behavior far better than personality, intelligence, or other individual-level traits.

Click here to

The one thing you should never do on a plane

When it comes to flying, the experience can be an absolute nightmare for some people.

The idea of being trapped up in the air is terrifying and every little bump and rattle you feel during a plane journey could prove unnerving.

If you are someone who's afraid of flying then there's one thing you certainly shouldn't be doing while on a plane - according to a pilot.

And that's focusing on the facial expressions of flight attendants and trying to interpret what they might be thinking or whether something is wrong.

Writing in his book, Cockpit Confidential, pilot Patrick Smith reveals that trying to read a flight attendant's expression is pointless.

This, he claims, is because it's so easy to misinterpret the situation.

He wrote: "That glazed look in the flight attendant's eyes is probably one of exhaustion, not fear.

"Nervous flyers are prone to envision some silently impending disaster, with distressed crew members pacing the aisles and whispering to each other in secret."
He continued: "In reality, passengers will be told about any emergency or serious malfunction."

The expert also made the reader aware that members of the crew will not alert passengers of minor malfunctions if they pose no threat to safety as it could cause people to panic.

"Being blunt about every little problem invites unnecessary worry, not to mention embellishment," added Mr Smith.

As well as this top tip, a frequent flyer also recently shared their advice for booking seats on a plane.

Writing for  escape.com.au  , John Burfitt revealed he always opts to purchase the 'worst' seat on a  plane when he travels.

Where is this seat you ask? The window seat at the very back, located right near the toilets.

He realised at the back of the plane no one would be behind him so he wouldn't spend the flight being kicked in the back.

Other benefits of selecting this seat include never getting hit by the trolley, not being bumped by passengers as they pass in the aisle and being able to lean into the corner wall to doze off.

Happy Chinese New Year!

Who says Muslims can’t vote for non-Muslim leaders?

Malaysia is a multicultural and multi-confessional country whose official religion is Islam. The country’s constitution allows Muslims and non-Muslims to be represented in Parliament for harmonious governance. There is no rule as agreed on in the constitution stipulating that a Muslim cannot vote for a non-Muslim representative or vice- versa. It is this judicious system that has made democracy work in the country.

Under the constitution, while Islam is the official religion, followers of other beliefs are allowed to practise their faiths without hindrance. The elected government, on its part, comprises leaders from various religious and racial backgrounds, without religion encroaching into worldly state affairs.

Unfortunately, some local clerics have fallen into the pit of fixation and fanaticism for the sake of political gain. They do not hesitate to give speeches based on their own interpretation of religion, that “Muslims cannot choose a non-Muslim leader”. This is unacceptable when it comes to state matters in our democracy.

It may be religiously correct when related solely to matters of faith, but not when it involves state matters. Obviously, the state cannot appoint a non-Muslim to look into the religious affairs of Muslims – the appointment of a mufti, for instance.

Quoting verses from the holy book and interpreting them according to their whims to justify their decree for political expediency may not always be right. It has been recognised by Islamic scholars that even though sacred texts contain holy words, their interpretation and application are human acts that can be debated and transmuted in an inclusive manner. These give-and-take dynamics were found even in the earliest days of Islamic civilisation. In choosing a leader to deal with state matters, it’s espoused in Islam that the person should have the trust and capability to deal with the tasks given to him or her.

Unfortunately, this discourse on the “divine and the human” seems embroiled in confusion among some clerics, which has resulted in religion usurping or rescinding the wisdom of the people. They seem to promulgate intolerance of others in a multi-religious society, and this could even lead to supreme authorisation.

In this age of democracy, we should not be faced with the dilemma of whether a Muslim is allowed to choose a leader who is not a Muslim. Neither should it be the other way around – whether non-Muslims are allowed to choose a Muslim as their leader.

People of a single race or religion should not dictate who should lead the country. In a democracy, we have the right to choose the candidate whom we believe is best qualified for the post.

For Muslim thinkers, Islam is seen as compatible with modern secular democracies. Clerics who think otherwise are not keeping up with modern times and the reality of the world we live in today. These clerics feel that they are bound by the Al-Maidah verse 5:51 of the Quran that, according to their interpretation, “forbids Muslims to associate with or vote for non-Muslims”. And they argue that “there is no precedence of choosing a non-Muslim leader” during the Caliph era.

However, they stop short at that to confuse the masses. They fail to convince the people that many Muslims at the time, especially those originally from Medina, had strong bonds with people from non-Muslim tribes, dating back even before Islam as well as during the khilafah rule.

“Allah does not forbid you from showing kindness and dealing justly with those who have not fought you due to your faith or driven you out of your homes. Allah loves those who deal justly. Allah only forbids you from those people that fought you because of your faith, drove you out of your homes and helped in your expulsion, that you take them as intimate associates. And whosoever takes them as intimate associates, then it is they who are the wrongdoers.” (Quran, 60:8-9)

This verse should set the tone for how we see verse 5:51, which has often been misused to claim that Islam orders Muslims not to have any sort of good relations with non-Muslims at all, an interpretation which is refuted by the above verse in the Quran.

Scholars have argued over this interpretation of the verse, saying the verse was revealed and was only applicable during the time of wars and enemies, when the non-Muslims tried to suppress the Muslims. This is never the case in the present context where Muslims and non-Muslims are not at war with each other.

Don’t be reclusive in thought

In the present democracy, there is a separation between state and religion in a country like Malaysia, for instance. The state in general does not have the authority to intervene in religious matters, unlike the caliphs and Islamic leaders of the past. In fact, the concept of “state” did not even exist in the seventh century. They were the least sophisticated as they had only loosely knit tribal forms of administration until the advent of the Ottoman Empire (c. 1299 –1920).

In Malaysia, religion comes under the authority of individual state rulers. At the federal level, the government only provides a governing body on religious affairs under an appointed minister who, in this case, has to be Muslim. Jakim was thus established in 1997, but even this measure was an afterthought, implemented when leaders saw the unending controversies miring the religious teachings in the country. The leaders of all these religious bodies are appointed from among Muslims.

Muslims should be wise enough not to be in reclusive in thought when confronted by skewed clerics. Supporting non-Muslim candidates in a democracy where there is a separation of state and religion cannot be considered a wrong act for Muslims. Historical precedence based on isolated events of the past does not hold water in the context of modern democracy.

In fact, in Islam there is no absolute model for political rule. The Islamic form of government depends on the circumstances. Government, according to Islam, will be decided by the circumstances. According to Islam, a political form is not a part of belief. They are separate entities. This is where some obsessive clerics are confused in their approach to Islam. It is always the prevailing situation that will determine the type of political form that has to be adopted. This is what democracy is.

In Islamic history, the modest administrative form adopted after the Prophet was based on khilafah. It was not an absolute form, though. Later on, the dynastic model of administration was adopted. The models set by other Prophets are also an Islamic model. This is because the Quran accepts all messengers as models as mentioned in the Quran (6:90): “Those [the previous prophets] were the people whom God guided. Follow their guidance then and say, I ask no reward for this from you: it is only a reminder for all mankind.”

The democratic model of today

Following this principle, the democratic model of today is also an accepted model in Islam. This is supported by the following verse of the Quran: “… and their affairs are by counsel among themselves” (42:38). According to these precedents, if voters elect a non-Muslim leader it would be considered a right choice according to Islam. In the Malaysian context, there is no prohibition on elected Muslim and non-Muslim leaders who are not adversaries in the social and political sense having mutual consultation and working in tandem for the people and the betterment of the nation.

It would not be regarded as a wrongful choice or a sin for Muslims to work with or choose leaders from among the non-Muslims. Hopefully, those clerics in PAS will stop distorting the message of Islam to confuse the people just to seek political power. In fact, this act of theirs is debauchery and against Islam.

In Islam, political form is not related to belief. For instance, the government does not have a set form as does a religious ritual, such as steps and ways to perform the haj or prayers. Governance is related to circumstances or practical insights that are flexible and can vary with time and according to the wishes of the people. It’s the quests for real-world intuitions that will decide the form of government to be adopted in a democracy. The values adopted by leaders and in governance, however, can indirectly be consonant with the universal values found in Islam as well as other religions, such as being knowledgeable, competent, honest and trustworthy.

by Moaz Nair

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